Portfolios A Look At Ways To Adopt A Reflective, Goal-Setting, Gritty Culture into the Classroom
HOW WILL STUDENTS SEEING THEIR GROWTH THROUGH THE USE OF ONLINE PORTFOLIOS AFFECT THEIR MOTIVATION AND PERSEVERANCE ACADEMICALLY? MORE SPECIFICALLY, THROUGH GOAL-SETTING AND PERFORMANCE, WILL SELF-REFLECTION WITHIN AN ONLINE PORTFOLIO INSTILL GRIT INTO LEARNERS?
Students Will Be Able To See Their Progress and Growth Through the Technological Use of an Online Portfolio
With technology being implemented more and more in the 21st century, educators and learners are finding ways to continue creating and innovating their curricula within the common core. Grading practices, differentiation, and multiple options are changing constantly. When trying to create a community of reflective learners, learners need to utilize their responsibility and time management skills in order to find reason and success in their personal growth. However, the utilization of technology also begs to question whether it will motivate the students to keep up with their responsibility of their work for reflective purposes. Can educators and learners see the growth that happens with the 21st century opportunities? With online portfolios, learners can actively monitor and reflect on their academic work.
Differentiated Instruction: The 21st Century Power of Choice
When I began looking at student motivation and wondering how I would instill that “drive to explore” within my learners, I looked at differentiation. In my opinion, differentiated instruction is a no-brainer; students are complex human beings who all learn in a multitude of ways. Sure, the content of knowledge I am giving them is the same. But how they learn is another thing. Grace Smith and Stephanie Throne speak to differentiated instruction as supplying “ teachers with a flexible framework that offers multiple learning approaches to meet learners’ needs. It provides for an extensive array of instructional and management strategies to assist us in our effort to reach our very diverse learners. Within today’s classrooms, we encounter an astonishing range of interests, levels of readiness, and learning styles, not to mention myriad cultural and familial differences that shape our students’ social and learning personalities. DI recognizes and honors academic, cultural, and familial diversity. DI practitioners attend to that diversity and also meet curricular objectives via modification of instruction. Teachers, however, don’t shoulder all of the responsibility for student learning and achievement; students are highly engaged and accountable.” (Differentiating Instruction with Technology in Middle School Classrooms, 2009, p.30) With this understanding of differentiated instruction, I began wondering what would further motivate my learners to have ownership and pride in their education.
Giving my learners a choice in how they want to show their learned skills through differentiation has been a very positive venture. Some learners thrive with hands-on projects, while others prefer book reports. However, many learners have chosen ways to use their technological expertise' for their final assessment, wanting to show off their creative and intellectual skills through the use of multiple platforms. After all, this generation comes nearly equipped with the latest advancements in technology, and the knowledge of these technologies. And more so, their future depends on this knowledge, how they use it, and what they use it for. In the Journal of Educational Technology Systems, “Scaffolding Complex Learning: Integrating 21st Century Thinking, Emerging Technologies, And Dynamic Design And Assessment To Expand Learning And Communication Opportunities,” E. O’Connor, F. McDonald, and M. Ruggiero (2014) illustrated answers to significant questions, explaining why we need to understand certain information regarding technology and how us educators implement it. These questions bring us deeper into the big idea of the content, to help our learners achieve the skills of enduring understandings and knowing how to apply it to their lives. I appreciated these questions: “Why is knowing this content important—for government and infrastructure, for science and health, for cultural awareness and peace, for communication and dissemination, for education? And, to whom is it important—government, healthcare professionals, scholars, businesses, teachers . . . people? Once the importance of the field has been re-affirmed, instructors should understand how this knowledge is developed, communicated, enhanced, and shared.” (O’Connor, McDonald, Ruggiero, 2014, pp.201-202)
From this, we can then decide how to get our students there. This then brings us to a more memorable experience for our kids, and this becomes enduring to them in the long run.
The world of poster boards and dioramas are not over, but the opportunities technology has given learners allows them to keep thinking outside the box. For example, if a learner wanted to do a book report in the form of a Power Point or Prezi, she or he also has the capabilities of then presenting to the class a video or book trailer along with their project. This further amplifies their understanding, as well as their peers understanding. Even more, technology can be found on a simple poster through the creation of a QR code linked to a website the learner found or created, or to a video. Through differentiated choices and meaningful use of technology, learners can continue to challenge themselves by building off of what they’ve already produced. The world can only continue to move forward with creative and innovative thinkers. With all of these opportunities the learners have, can they understand their growth from project to project? This is where an online portfolio comes in.
Online Portfolios: A Digital Opportunity of Growth
Online portfolios are not new. There are many platforms that allow anyone to compile their work overtime. A learner having their own online portfolio, filled with uploaded files and pictures of their academic work throughout the school year presents the opportunity for them, as well as the educator, to see their progress all at once. This ability can then assist the learner in continuing to transform and evolve their work by building off of what they have academically and skillfully provided already. However, a concern that arises then, is if technology will be a burden on the students needing to update their portfolios. The act may become redundant, and less importance will take place. They may have the enduring understanding of the content learned, but not the importance of the reflection opportunities compiled in their portfolios. In Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, Volume 12 Issue 2, “Integrating Popular Web Applications in Classroom Learning Environments and Its Effect on Teaching, Student Learning Motivation and Performance,” Lin, Y., Jou, M. says, “...enhancing student learning motivation and participation is crucial for the teaching and learning of new knowledge or skills since motivation would affect how instructors and students interact with learning materials.” (2013) However, using technology can either have positive or negative effects depending on how you use it. “...this study proposed a learning environment supported by well known web applications to supplement classroom teaching and learning activities, assist instructors in facilitating student learning and participation, and help improve student learning motivation and performance. Experimental results revealed that students had higher learning motivation and participation when using the proposed web application supported learning environment during and after class as it gave them access to adequate learning support.” (Lin & Jou, 2013, pp.157-160)
Some learners may access and look over their work within their online portfolios more often than not. Others may only upload to appease the masses, and never think twice about what is in there. As Lin talks about, when the technology supports the learner whenever they access it, there motivation will be. Reflection on their growth may not be of importance or supportive to each learner. Therefore, motivation will subside and it will all be for naught.
Reflection: Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, What Am I Looking For Exactly?
The concept of reflection may seem simple: a serious thought or consideration on something. However, Peggy A. Ertmer and Timothy J. Newby of Purdue University consider the reflection on the process of learning to “be an essential ingredient in the development of expert learners. Expert learners display planfulness, control, and reflection; they are aware of the knowledge and skills they possess, or are lacking, and use appropriate strategies to actively implement or acquire them. This type of learner is self-directed and goal oriented, purposefully seeking out needed information.” (The Expert Learner: Strategic, Self-Regulated, and Reflective, 1996, p. 1)
Reflection is a skill achieved over time and practice. But what Ertmer and Newby allude to by talking about learners who reflect on themselves as being expert learners holds truth. If all we did was take in information and regurgitate it out without reflecting on why we are learning it or how we can apply it to life, the point of the lesson was moot in the first place. Many learners automatically go through a basic reflective process without prompting them to do so. In Focus on Learning: Reflective Learners and Feedback (2014), Rose Bard states that “Reflecting simply put is the act of thinking about something while seeking a deeper level of understanding.” (Bard, 2014) I believe that many of our learners do that on their own, not necessarily about the content they are learning, but about what interests them. Bard then talks about a deeper level of reflection, stating “Reflective practice is applying this thinking systematically by making questions, collecting data and analysing it in order, not to prove something, but to comprehend and act upon reality.” (Bard, 2014) With content knowledge and reflective practice, students can then begin to think of what to do with the knowledge and apply it accordingly. We move another step closer to metacognition (awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes), the holy grail of reflection.
Reflection on the process of learning and reflective practices are essential to content. But what about student self-reflection on their growth academically and work efficacy? Through my research, I came across an idea that involves reflective contribution from learners: Edwin A. Locke’s “Goal Setting Theory” (1966). Locke stated that “when an individual had specific goals or standards of performance to meet, the performance effects would be more pronounced than when specific goals were lacking (as with the instruction of “do your best”). (John B. Miner, Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership, 2005, p.160)
Locke brought into question what difficult goals would do negatively versus positively, which caused him to further his studies in self-efficacy and expectancy in relation to goal setting. Both him and his partner, Gary Latham, came up with an equation: “Assigned goals facilitate performance because they influence both self-efficacy and personal goals. Self-efficacy affects goal choice, and both self-efficacy and personal goals affect performance (1990).” (Miner, 2005, p.165)
In the recent British Journal of Educational Psychology, Cheryl J. Travers, Dominique Morisano & Edwin A. Locke held a study based on the idea of growth goals. They ran a study on 92 students in courses that had self-reflection and growth goal setting at its core. The learners journaled and filled out surveys throughout the school year. They stated that “About 20% of students' self-set growth goals directly related to academic growth and performance; students reported that these had a strong impact on their achievement both during and following the reflective programme. Growth goals that were indirectly related to achievement (e.g., stress management) appeared to positively impact academic growth and other outcomes (e.g., well-being). A follow-up survey revealed that growth goal setting continued to impact academic growth factors (e.g., self-efficacy, academic performance) beyond the reflective programme itself.” (Self-Reflection, Growth Goals, and Academic Outcomes: A Qualitative Study, 2014) They then concluded that
With a goal in mind, and self-reflection to help create that goal, we are missing a key component to keeping our learners intrinsically motivated. The term “grit” was coined by Angela Duckworth in 2007, with the definition as “the tendency to sustain interest in and effort toward very long-term goals.” (The Duckworth Lab, Research Statement, 2007, p.1) Duckworth uses grit as one trait to predict achievement. The other trait is self-control, which “is the voluntary regulation of behavioral, emotional, and attentional impulses in the presence of momentarily gratifying temptations or diversions.” (Duckworth, 2007, p.1) She states that the more “gritty” one is, the more self-control they have. However, that isn’t always the case entirely. Many factors go into finding out those who are gritty, and those who are not. She goes on to say that “grit entails having and working assiduously toward a single challenging superordinate goal through thick and thin, on a timescale of years or even decades.” (Duckworth, 2007, p.1) Are perseverance and resiliency teachable? Can we somehow instill grit and self-control into our learners? Essentially, Duckworth is after that answer, making the point that they both “contribute to the quality and quantity of effort individuals invest in their goals,” (Duckworth, 2007, p.1) and are not measured by talent. Just like Locke, Duckworth is looking for people who are achieving goals no matter what it takes. The difference is that she wants to know why people are more gritty than others, and how to instill a gritty nature within people. Could self-reflection on academic growth and goal setting (with self-efficacy and performance) be connected with grit? If so, portfolios are a step toward a better understanding of and for our learners in this great big world of the rare and unique gift of grit.
Though grit may not be so well known as its counterparts, like Carol Dweck’s concept of “growth mindset” or Edwin Locke’s goal-setting theory, it is all linked in different ways. The online portfolios are the homebase when gathering data and measuring grit in order to have a platform for learners to reflect on, mold, and see something tangible in front of them. How do I collect that particular data? The G.R.I.T. grid.
The G.R.I.T. grid was originally developed by College Track, a college preparatory program based out of San Francisco. AJ Juliani, an Education and Technology Innovation Specialist for Upper Perkiomen School District, wrote a blog on College Track and their G.R.I.T. grid. He states, “This program is taking a BIG idea like Grit, and making it tangible for students to understand. In a world that is constantly connected, and “flattening” more and more by the day, the people that succeed need grit. This rubric may be made for college, but it applies to all levels of life. If you want to be successful, you need Guts, Resilience, Integrity, and Tenacity.” (Juliani, “Measuring the Immeasurable: GRIT in Education, 2013)
When Juliani said that we needed to make grit tangible for our learners to understand, this prompted me to check out College Track. From there, I took the grid they developed and changed it to fit a middle schooler’s understanding. I created a common language to use on the grid as well as in the classroom under the categories “academic” and “leadership.” From there, learners used this as a rubric to reflect on their portfolios, their character inside and outside of the classroom, and how they encourage and treat others.
The development of the G.R.I.T. grid was to encourage the skills of reflection application, as well as furthering that process by learner self-evaluation. Data being collected on the grid will be at the end of each trimester, so the learners have work and growth provided for sufficient and meaningful reflections.
Continuing off of the end-of-trimester grid, I then developed a weekly reflection rubric for academics, leadership qualities, and an added content understanding evaluation. James H. McMillan and Jessica Hearn in “Student Self-Assessment: The Key to Stronger Student Motivation and Higher Achievement” (2008) talks about the positive outcomes of student self-judgment and self-monitoring. They state that for self-assessing, learners “pay deliberate attention to what they are doing, often in relation to external standards. Thus, self- monitoring concerns awareness of thinking and progress as it occurs, and as such, it identifies part of what students do when they self-assess.” Intermixed with self-judgment, this “involves identifying progress toward targeted performance.” From this, I wanted to see if there was a correlation between learner understanding of themselves and the content, and their academic grades and growth. They go on to talk about three theories: the cognitive and constructivist theories of learning and motivation, the metacognition theory, and the self-efficacy theory. I believe the weekly self-evaluation rubric will show some fruition of these theories and the outcome of grit.
FAQ: The Portfolio Itself
What do you put into an online portfolio?
This is really up to the educator. Some classrooms are project-based, giving the summative assessments more creativity than just a multiple choice test or regulation 5 paragraph essay. These measure the knowledge, but not always the application of the skill. Within my classroom, projects, presentations, blogs, discussions, individual and group work, all happen rapidly. All of my learners will not necessarily be doing the same thing at any one time, though the knowledge content and standards taught will be the same. Therefore, their experiences will not be the same, because their choice of showing their skills differ. I have found that learners usually choose to show their skills with their strengths. For example, a learner who loves writing, but is also interested in creating an Animoto or wiki site, will use her/his strengths of the writing content to show their knowledge. Their application of skills will be shown through the creation of their project and implementation of knowledge. Putting this into the learner's portfolio will then give another building block of their evolving knowledge and skills to reflect on and build off of. With that said, an online portfolio can be comprised of summative assessments, projects, writing assignments, journals, blogs, etc. Anything that will give the learner the opportunity to reflect and build off of their work is the goal.
How often will learners access their online portfolio, and will they actively reflect and build off of their prior work?
Once again, this is entirely up to the educator. Accessing an online portfolio is for learners to upload their work (with what the educator wishes for them to display). Whether that be a weekly journal they submit, or a unit project they upload is entirely subjective to the classroom. The same sentiment goes with when and how the learners look and reflect on their work. Before the learner chooses her or his next summative project creation, the educator may want for them to look at their prior creations and ask that they build off of what they have already done. The innovation and application then deepens, forcing our learners to think even more outside of the box by utilizing their strengths. Or we could see learners challenging themselves to use their strengths in their weak areas, such as with writing or a technology application they have never accessed before.
Another idea in learner reflection is having them showcase their work at the end of each semester/trimester to their peers, their educator, or write within a journal their thoughts on the work they have done thus far. Progress monitoring through the use of an online portfolio can look different in any classroom. It is up to the educator.
From this, we can then decide how to get our students there. This then brings us to a more memorable experience for our kids, and this becomes enduring to them in the long run when they can utilize their portfolios for self-reflection, for showcasing their work for peers, and for educators to see their growth.
Who has access to the learner's online portfolio?
It is important that the learner and the educator have no boundaries between the learner's work academically. This allows the educator to see the learner's growth throughout the academic year, or even years depending on if other educators are utilizing the online portfolio or if you have the same students for more than a year (looping). The educator is actively witnessing, reflecting, and participating in their learner's growth along with them. These portfolios can also be accessed by parents of the learner if the option is warranted.
Rob Van Nood, an educator in Oregon, has used Evernote for his student's online portfolios. In the past he had them make paper portfolios, but sees the use of e-portfolios as "a student's projects warehouse and progress tracker." (How To Create a Portfolio With Evernote Education Series, 2014, p.1) He has the ability to email parents their child's progress note with something they found to be positive and an improvement. Through the different platforms Van Nood has used, he has found Evernote to be user-friendly, sufficient for a successful portfolio to reflect on, and to showcase.
In the past, I have had students keep their summative assessment projects in order to reflect. However, trying to keep these artifacts safe and easy to store has been a constant struggle. Online portfolios would help with this housekeeping management, and allow instant access to any students' work. My classroom will be going 1:1 with iPads beginning this school year, and Evernote is an application that will be uploaded to the device. Some students have used this before, and some have not. Fortunately, Evernote is a user-friendly app that only requires some practicing with.
What are some possible issues that could be problematic to success of online portfolios?
Like with any technology, there can always be malfunctions. With my main focus being the reflection of growth for my students, as well as me, some students could choose to not update their online portfolios. This then leaves them with no opportunity to showcase their work each trimester or conference. This also may disrupt their reflection piece of seeing their growth, and continuing to build from what they have learned and created.
Grading a portfolio is not my goal, which could harbor an "I don't care" kind of attitude with some students. But that is also a part of the study when seeing which students would choose to grow and obtain a reflective nature in their work. I will grade their personal reflections each trimester as a part of their journaling they will be doing throughout the year.
Having a culture and community of self-reflectors is the main goal. Students getting to see their work progress in a physical sense can help them see their growth throughout a school year. Will motivation ensue? Will they loath this reflective tool? Many outcomes are possible, but this is a good beginning to helping the future use their expertise for their own work, creatively and innovatively. With the idea of Edwin A. Locke’s “Goal Setting Theory” and growth goal setting, we can begin to manifest an idea of self-reflection within learners. From this comes self-efficacy, performance, and expectation awareness; knowing what one is capable of doing. With a goal in mind, we can then begin to see just how gritty our learners are, if a goal is challenging enough. These two brilliant ideas brought meaningfully into a classroom, through the implementation of online portfolios, may harbor results. We will just have to wait and see.
Counter-Argument: What About Creative Achievement?
In researching and studying grit, I often asked myself if this theory can somehow capture the whole child’s academic achievement, leadership skills, AND creative achievement. Though my study and developments did not focus on completely identifying grit on my spectrum, I did take into account being able to instill areas of the learner that may positively affect their academic, leadership, and creative achievement.
In an article by Sarah D. Sparks titled “‘Grit' May Not Spur Creative Success, Scholars Say” (2014), she outlines Duckworth’s work on grit. She then goes on to question whether grit boosts creativity like it does for academics. In the article, Magdalena G. Grohman, the associate director of the Center for Values in Medicine, Science, and Technology at the University of Texas at Dallas also questions grit and creativity in this quote: "We know what to do to get good grades, what to do to stay in military school, and what to do to win in contests such as spelling bees. The rules are pretty clear on what the achievement is and what success is in these domains. But what about creative achievement?" Grohman has continued to study if grit can affect creativity, which she has concluded at the current time as no. There are many different factors that help people thrive. It is a complex study.
This article directly spoke to the reason of why I felt the need to create the grit spectrum. There is a gray area when it comes to grit that takes into account learner interests. If there is no structure to the environment to the learner, will they still show signs of grit? Or will they stay gritty? There are many factors, from environment to relationships to personal experiences that can be the driving force behind why someone is gritty or not. These answers will hopefully come in time in regards to the grit spectrum.
Van Nood, Rob. 2014. How To Create a Portfolio With Evernote Education Series. Retrieved from https://blog.evernote.com/blog/2012/02/28/how-to-create-a-portfolio-with-evernote-education-series/.
- With a new year of 1:1 iPad disbursement to my students, as well as a first year pilot with online portfolios, Van Nood gives great insight to the dos and don’ts of online portfolios. He also gives feedback on his own experiences with it in his classroom, the programs that are useful, and how the students reacted/utilized their online portfolios.
Smith, Grace E., Throne, Stephanie. 2009. “Differentiating Instruction with Technology in Middle School Classrooms” (p. 30).
- Differentiation looks different in every classroom, but having a solid definition given by Smith and Throne was reassuring. They touched on diversity in the classroom, further illustrating the “haves” and “have nots”. This is a recurring instance in every school, and diversity should be taught to be sure we have an education on what it is and how to handle it.
Lin, Y., Jou, M. 2013. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, Volume 12 Issue 2. “Integrating Popular Web Applications in Classroom Learning Environments and Its Effect on Teaching, Student Learning Motivation and Performance” (pp.157-164).
- Lin and Jou study and experiment with student motivation and technology usage. They made a plausible point in their study on technology usage supporting learning, and beyond the classroom learning. This is evident in learner motivation, which is crucial for this next year in my classroom and 1:1 ipads.
O’Connor, E., McDonald, F., Ruggiero, M. 2014. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. “Scaffolding Complex Learning: Integrating 21st Century Thinking, Emerging Technologies, And Dynamic Design And Assessment To Expand Learning And Communication Opportunities” (pp.201-202).
- Along with using technology in the classroom, O’Connor, McDonald, and Ruggiero touch on the relevancy of content being taught to learners. Making sure the learners know what they are learning, why they are learning it, and how they can apply it to their own lives. Not just a theoretical situation. Educators also need to be aware of how they are using technology, and making it relevant to the real world. Not just a supplemented act.
Ertmer, Peggy A., Newby, Timothy J. 1996. “The Expert Learner: Strategic, Self-Regulated, and Reflective” (pp.1-12).
- Ertmer and Newby define what makes a learner an expert learner. With a reflective skill in there, I am interested to know what gives a person the abilities to self-reflect and deepen their understanding on a concept that applies to their own life. I want to know how to instill the “expert” within a learner. This article also speaks to contributing factors of Angela Duckworth’s grit study.
Bard, Rose. 2014. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, Volume 18, Number 3. “Focus on Learning: Reflective Learners and Feedback.” Retrieved from http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume18/ej71/ej71int/utm_content=buffer2221a&utm_medium=social&utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_campaign=buffer.
- Bard talks about what reflection is (definition), and notes that there are different types and levels of reflection. Each type of reflection is its own set of skills and understanding. This looks at the surface level of reflection that educators ask of learners, but also what to expect when tapping into an enduring understanding through reflection.
Miner, John B. 2005. “Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership, Volume 1” (pp.160-165).
- The theory of setting goals equaling positive results in any situation (academic, work, physical, etc.) makes sense, but how it is instilled is still a mystery. Essentially, this is a circular equation that all work together: “Assigned goals facilitate performance because they influence both self-efficacy and personal goals. Self-efficacy affects goal choice, and both self-efficacy and personal goals affect performance.” Performance=self-efficacy=personal goal choice=performance...etc.
Travers, Cheryl J., Morisano, Dominique, Locke, Edwin A. 2014. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 85, Issue 2. “Self-Reflection, Growth Goals, and Academic Outcomes: A Qualitative Study.” Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjep.12059/abstract;jsessionid=FD8F579E828EA5FAB585E525772BC5DF.f02t02userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=.
- The study ran by Travers, Morisano, and Locke in conjunction with growth goals (goal-setting theory) proves that inside and outside of academic achievement, learners with goals will continue to improve on themselves. This is another correlating study that is important to Duckworth’s grit study.
Duckworth, Angela. 2015. Research Statement. Retrieved from https://sites.sas.upenn.edu/duckworth/pages/research-statement.
- Angela Duckworth’s work is invaluable to the research I hope to achieve alongside of her. Her definition of grit, the contributing factors, and what it predicts is of utmost importance to seeing how we can identify a learner who will make it through anything. However, I am working to connect the dots on different theories (Locke, goal-setting theory. Dweck, growth mindset), and how to instill grit into learners.
D’Adamo, J. 2012. Contretemps. “Cycle of Learning, Part IV: Groupthink? Guess Again!” fromhttp://johndadamo.wordpress.com/2012/01/. Wordpress.
- This article was interesting, because it talked about the positivity regarding collaboration and working together. However, it also talked about the long lost art of solitude, and how some of the best inventors, artists, creators, etc. are in their heads all the time. We forget that group work is good, but so is independently working alone. It’s okay to be alone!
Brann, A., Gray, T. 2012. Embedded Supports to Differentiate Instruction for Struggling Students. Retrieved fromhttp://www.readingrockets.org/article/embedded-supports-differentiate-instruction-struggling-students. PowerUp WHAT WORKS.
- This article talks about the different strategies to help with reading and comprehension. It goes from technological practices and tools, to ways you can work with kids one on one. The statistics of learning disabilities were insightful on the need for these strategies.
Spencer, D., Wolf, D., Sams, A. 2011. The Daily Riff. “Are You Ready To Flip?” http://flipped.wiki.usfca.edu
- The positives of a flipped classroom were touched on. Holding the “lecture” BEFORE class. Allowing students to learn at their pace. Accessing past lessons with a click of a button.
Vega, V. 2013. Technology Integration Research Review. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-research-learning-outcomes. Edutopia.
- Vega talks about the positive outcomes from integrating technology in the classroom, as well as multiple different articles that backup their claims. I enjoyed how they had said that technology has created passive learners into active learners.
Del Giudice, Marguerite. 2014. “Grit Trumps Talent and IQ: A Story Every Parent (and Educator) Should Read.” Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141015-angela-duckworth-success-grit-psychology-self-control-science-nginnovators/.
- This article talks about how grit is not found in regards to talent or IQ. I found this to be echoing Carol Dweck’s Growth Mindset. Grit is not a fixed symptom. It is an active, attainable, and growing ability.
Perkins-Gough, Deborah. 2013. “The Significance of Grit: A Conversation with Angela Lee Duckworth.” Resiliency and Learning. Volume 71, Number 1. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept13/vol71/num01/The-Significance-of-Grit@-A-Conversation-with-Angela-Lee-Duckworth.aspx
- This article speaks directly to and about Angela Duckworth’s work in grit. It helps us better understand what grit is, how she measured it, what she thinks of it, etc.
Popova, Maria. “Fixed vs. Growth: The Two Basic Mindsets That Shape Our Lives.” Retrieved from http://www.brainpickings.org/2014/01/29/carol-dweck-mindset/.
- This article talked about fixed mindset and growth mindset. This helped me understand and add into my grit study the power of the mindsets.
Ryan, Kevin, Cooper, James. 2009. “Kaleidoscope: Contemporary and Classic Readings in Education” (p.311).
- Teaching strategies, some based on reflection practices and goal-setting for students and teachers alike.
Yeager, David Scott, Dweck, Carol S. 2012. “Mindsets That Promote Resilience: When Students Believe That Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed (Abstract, pp.1). Educational Psychologist. Volume 47, Issue 4.
- Taking a deeper look at resilience and how that can be built within students. This added nicely into grit studies, considering it is an attribute to grit.
Lamb,Larry, Lamb,Johnson, Lamb, Annette. 2007. Electronic Portfolios: Students, Teachers, and Life Long Learners. Retrieved from http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic82.htm.
- Useful ways to use portfolios online, and why we need them. What ways we can use them for meaningful ways other than just a showcase of our work. To reflect on and see our growth throughout an entire learning period.
Teach Thought Staff. 2013. “8 Educational Apps To Create Digital Portfolios.” Retrieved from http://www.teachthought.com/technology/8-educational-apps-to-create-digital-portfolios/.
- This site is great for any online applications and resources that you can use when utilizing an online portfolio. They give the website of the application, along with reviews and uses.
Juliani, AJ. 2013. “Measuring the Immeasurable: GRIT in Education.” Retrieved from http://ajjuliani.com/measuring-the-immeausurable-grit-in-education/.
- Juliani speaks on behalf of the G.R.I.T. rubric from College Track. He praises this creation and points out the opportunities and used it creates for learners.
2013. “College Track Student GRIT Rubric.” Retrieved from https://collegetrack.org/main/content/view/20/175/.
- This is the G.R.I.T. rubric that was the basis for my own developed G.R.I.T. rubric.
McMillan, James H., Hearn, Jessica. 2008. “Student Self-Assessment: The Key to Stronger Student Motivation and Higher Achievement.” Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ815370.pdf.
- McMillan and Hearn talk about student self-assessment (monitor and evaluate the quality of their thinking and behavior when learning, and identify strategies that improve their understanding and skills). They showed a self-assessment cycle that includes the comprehension, the ability to self-monitor, and to self-judge.
Danielson, Lana M. 2009. “Fostering Reflection.” Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb09/vol66/num05/Fostering-Reflection.aspx.
- Danielson talks about the power of reflection, along with Grimmette’s four modes of thinking: technological, situational, deliberate, and dialectical. She points out the different levels of thinking and the depth of reflection you should give to each mode. These types of thinking then move to asking the right questions of yourself to further your reflections.
Sparks, Sarah D. 2014. “‘Grit’ May Not Spur Creative Success, Scholars Say.” Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/08/20/01grit.h34.html.
- Sarah D. Sparks raises valid questions regarding grit and the creative process. She questions whether grit supports and inspires creativity, which she biasly debunks. She points out how grit is found and useful more so in a structured, academic setting versus a creative, interested/uninterested setting.